Wrzesień 2019: Cztery teksty Bluetigera na FSGK

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Taniec z Mitami: Przeznaczenie Freya

7 września 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/09/taniec-z-mitami-przeznaczenie-freya/

Przeznaczenie Freya Grafika

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Pies Baskerville’ów (Sir Arthur Conan Doyle) – recenzja książki

14 września 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/09/pies-baskervilleow-sir-arthur-conan-doyle/

Pies Baskerville'ów Grafika

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Mity skandynawskie (Roger Lancelyn Green) – recenzja książki

20 września 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/09/mity-skandynawskie-roger-lancelyn-green/

Mity skandynawskie Grafika

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Taniec z Mitami: Krew Kvasira 

28 września 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/09/taniec-z-mitami-krew-kvasira/

Kvasir Grafika

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The Fate of Frey

The Fate of Frey by Bluetiger

Originally published in the Polish language at FSGK PL as Taniec z Mitami: Przeznaczenie Freya (https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/09/taniec-z-mitami-przeznaczenie-freya/)



The last time we saw him, a blizzard forced Stannis Baratheon to halt his march on Winterfell and make camp in an abandoned crofters’ village by an ice-bound lake, some three days away from his destination. Against his army, made up of knights and men-at-arms who have accompanied the claimant from the South, and warriors of the mountain clans, two hosts have been dispatched by Roose Bolton. The first of those is led by Lord Wyman Manderly, while the second consists of Freys, aiding the Lord of Dreadfort in subjugating the North, in accordance with their alliance pact sealed before the Red Wedding.

The contingent from the Twins was led by Lord Walder’s third son, Ser Aenys Frey, until a clever trap set by Stannis’ ally Mors Umber caused his demise. In this situation, the command of the Frey detachment passed to Walder’s sixth son, Hosteen.

Although Ser Hosteen is a battle-hardened warrior, it would appear he finds following orders much easier than giving them. Stannis’ opinion about the knight’s abilities is rather unflattering, and he goes as far as to name him “Ser Stupid”. To make matters even worse (at least from the Frey point of view), Hosteen is an impulsive man and lacks the restraint (and calculatedness) which characterizes some of his kin.

When a series of suspicious deaths begins in Winterfell, Hosteen makes it no secret that he believes Manderly is the culprit. He has no doubts that lord Wyman was involved in the enigmatic disappearance of three Freys (Jared, Symond and Rhaehar) traveling from the White Harbor to Winterfell either. Following Little Walder’s murder, Hosteen publicly puts the blame on Manderly, who denies such allegations, but declares that perhaps the youth’s death was a blessing – “had he lived, he would have grown up to be a Frey”. Hearing those words, the future commander of an entire army can’t help but to allow himself to be provoked, and attacks the Lord of White Harbor, only to be stopped by Manderly’s knights.

House Frey coat-of-arms by Abjiklam

To prevent future disputes within Winterfell’s walls, and dispose of bothersome allies (at least one of whom can be strongly suspected of being disloyal), Roose Bolton sends the Freys and the Manderlys against Stannis. However, due to aforementioned animosity between the two houses, their forces set off separately (which is quite beneficial for Wyman, if he really has plans to switch sides, and also suspiciously convenient for Mors Umber, since only the Freys fall into his trap). Thus, Ser Hosteen and his men will have to face Stannis Baratheon on their own.

***

What will be the result of this engagement? Many a theory has been written about this incoming battle, known as the Battle of Ice, but this time, we will turn to Norse Mythology, where – as I believe – some hints about our Frey’s fate can be found.

Much can be said about the influence those tales had on George R.R. Martin’s works. From Dreamsongs we know that the writer has read the Eddas (the older Poetic Edda and the younger Prose Edda) and some of the Icelandic Sagas.

My major was journalism, but I took a minor in history. My sophomore year I signed up for the History of Scandinavia, thinking it would be cool to study Vikings. Professor Franklin D. Scott was an enthusiastic teacher who invited the class to his home for Scandinavian food and glug (a mulled wine with raisins and nuts floating in it). We read Norse sagas, Icelandic eddas, and the poems of the Finnish patriotic poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg. I loved the sagas and the eddas, which reminded me of Tolkien and Howard.
—George R.R. Martin, Dreamsongs

Today we fill focus on a certain event which takes place during the end of the world (at least as we know it) described in the Eddas, when the destiny of the gods will be fulfilled, and Asgard and all the other worlds, including Midgard, will be destroyed in fire. This final battle between the forces of good and evil will is known as Ragnarök, which means “the fate of the gods” or “the destiny of the gods”. Due to an error in translation of this Old Norse term, there exists a second term for this Doomsday – the Twilight of the Gods (Götterdämmerung), made well-known in a large part because of Richard Wagner’s music drama The Ring of the Nibelung.

File:Kampf der untergehenden Götter by F. W. Heine.jpg

Friedrich Wilhelm Heine, Battle of the Doomed Gods An artistic vision of Ragnarök (Wikimedia Commons)

In A Song of Ice and Fire we find many references to events heralding Ragnarök and taking place during it, such as: the terrible winter (Fimbulvinter) lasting for three years, the swallowing of the sun and the moon by the wolves named Sköll and Hati, the Iron-holt (Iron-wood) Járnviðr¹, the hound Garmr belonging to the goddess Hel, the horn-blowing Heimdall, the three crowing roosters, Valhalla, Tyr and Fenrir, Odyn and his ravens, the World Tree Yggdrasil, the Midgard Serpent Jörmungandr… influences from other myths can also be discerned (it is worth to mention, for instance, the valkyries, the undead draugr, Loki, Iðunn and her apples, the tale about Baldur’s death inadvertently causes by the blind Höðr).

¹ Simplifying,  ð is pronounced in a similar way to th in words like father and that.

All those connections are a fascinating topic, one to which we will surely return in the future. However, in this essay, I wany to primarily  bring to your attention one event and two heroes.

In order to do so, we have to reach out to the Poetic Edda, which begins with the poem Völuspá, which can be translated as The Prophecy of the Völva or The Prophecy of the Seeress. According to beliefs of the pre-Christain Indianina, a völva was a person whom we could also call a prophetess, a foretelling woman or a seeress (think of seer, on the basis of which GRRM has created his greenseer term). It is curious that another word for a völva is vala (in fact, Völuspá sometimes appears as The Prophecy of the Vala) – perhaps this is where GRRM got the name Val from. After all, the ASOIAF Val might be, in a way, a priestess of the old gods, and it also appears that the author intentionally contrasts her with Melisandre, a believer of the fire god.

Snorre Sturluson-Christian Krohg.jpg

Christian Krohg, Snorri Sturluson – author of the Prose Edda (Wikimedia Commons)

In the poem Völuspá a certain völva is asked by Odin to present the history of the world, beginning with its creation and finishing with its end, Ragnarök. Here we are mainly interested in one event in the final battle between the gods (Æsir and Vanir) and the giants.

According to the seeress’ words, among portent revealing that the end is near will be the following events: a witch living in Járnviðr (Ironwood) will give birth to two offspring of Fenrir the wolf, Sköll and Hati, who shall steal the sun and snatch the moon from the firmament; three roosters shall crow – the golden Gillinkambi in Valhalla, the crimson Fjalar in Jotunheim, and the unnamed soot-red rooster in Hellheim; the infernal hound Garmr guarding the entrance to the realm of the dead will howl and fetters binding him shall burst.

There will come a time when:

Brothers shall fight and fell each other,
And sisters’ sons shall kinship stain;
Hard it is on earth, with mighty whoredom;
Axe-time, sword-time, shields are sundered
Wind-time, wolf-time², ere the world falls;
Nor ever shall men each other spare.
—From Henry Adam Bellows’ translation of Völuspá in The Poetic Edda

² Perhaps this is why GRRM originally wanted to name one of the ASOIAF novels A Time for Wolves.

Then Heimdall, guarding the rainbow bridge Bifrost, which connects Midgard (lands inhabited by humans) with Asgard (realm of the gods), shall blow his horn Gjallarhorn. When it sounds, the World Tree Yggdrasil will shiver. The giant Hrym will come from Jotunheim, bearing a shield. The serpent Jörmungandr, surrounding Midgard, will writhe, arousing enormous waves. The ship Naglfar will sail on this turbulent sea, carrying Loki and his host of monsters and giants.

Another enemy of the gods who will arrive is Surtr, a giant coming forth from Muspelheim (realm of fire) the south. His flaming sword will shine brighter than the sun.

File:The giant with the flaming sword by Dollman.jpg

John Charles Dollman, The Giant with the Flaming Sword (Wikimedia Commons)

During Ragnarök the gods – and their allies, mortal warriors who were slain in earlier battles and whose souls were carried to Valhalla by the valkyries, to await this one last fight – will stand against the forces of evil. According to the Prose Edda, which was written by Snorri Sturluson (12th and 13th century Icelandic poet and historian descended from the influential Sturlung clan), the Rainbow Bridge Bifrost will collapse when giants from Muspelheim, led by Surtr, will cross it.

Odin will sally forth with warriors of Valhalla to face the monstrous wolf Fenrir, and will be devoured by him. Vidar will avenge his father’s death. The one-handed Tyr (who has sacrificed his limb so the gods could capture Fenrir) will fight goddess Hel’s dire hound Garmr – the adversaries will kill one another. The result of Heimdall’s duel with the treacherous Loki will be similar. Thor’s destiny will be to combat Jörmungandr, and he will manage to slay the beast, but won’t leave long enough to boast of it – he will perish, poisoned the Midgard Serpent’s venom. Freyr will stand in the way of the giant Surtr (brandishing the shining sword, as bright as the sun), but won’t manage to overcome him and will fall dead. At the very end, Surtr will use his weapon to engulf the entire world in flames. Thus the destiny of the gods will be fulfilled.

File:Tyr and Fenrir-John Bauer.jpg

John Bauer (1882 – 1918), Tyr and Fenrir (Wikimedia Commons)

***

I suspect that when George R.R. Martin created a scenario where, in the Battle of Ice, Stannis Baratheon and Hosteen Frey become adversaries, he has this very scene with Surtr and Freyr in mind.

The surname “Frey” is most likely a reference to “Freyr” (whose name is often anglicized as Frey). The mythical Frey was one of the Vanir, the elder group of Norse deities, which was supplanted by the Æsir led by Odin. As it was described in Philip Parker’s book  The Northmen’s Fury: A History of the Viking World, according to some researchers, the merger of two pantheons (Æsir & Vanir) might suggest that two distinct peoples, worshiping different gods, were united. There are also theories that the Scandinavians originally worshiped the Vanir, deities associated with fertility and prosperity, and only later did the Odinic cults develop (it seems this god rose to prominence in the Vendel Period – between roughly 550 and 790 AD – shortly before the Viking raids began).

File:Freyr by Johannes Gehrts.jpg

Johannes Gehrts, Freyr (Wikimedia Commons)

Be it as it may, Freyr was the god of fertility and virility. His twin sister was Freya, goddess of love. Their parents were Njörðr, protector of the sea, sailors and fishermen, but also god of winds; and (at least in some accounts) Skaði, goddess of skiing, mountains, winter and hunting.

Just like Freyr, House Frey (and especially its patriarch, Lord Walder) is famous because of its fertility. We may see another parallel if we look at the god’s steed, the golden boar Gullinbursti, whose bristle glowed in the dark. Actually, Ser Hosteen also has a connection with with animal. To find out how this parallel works, we have to simply look at the sigil of the house his mother Amarei Crakehall came from.

House Crakehall.svg

House Crakehall coat-of-arms by Abjiklam

***

As for Stannis and Surtr, the obvious similarity between the two is the flaming sword – Lightbringer is described in a way reminiscent of the fiery giant’s weapon. What is more, in some scenes George R.R. Martin appears to be using the same phrase as Snorri Sturluson in Prose Edda. Just like Surtr’s blade, Stannis’ sword is compared to the sun:

Stannis Baratheon drew Lightbringer. The sword glowed red and yellow and orange, alive with light. Jon had seen the show before … but not like this, never before like this. Lightbringer was the sun made steel. (…)

Lightbringer was brighter than I’d ever seen it. As bright as the sun.” Jon raised his cup. “To Stannis Baratheon and his magic sword.”

A Dance with Dragons, Jon III—

In Rasmus Björn Anderson’s translation of  Gylfaginning from the Prose Edda we read that:

In the midst of this clash and din the heavens are rent in twain, and the sons of Muspel come riding through the opening. Surt rides first, and before him and after him flames burning fire. He has a very good sword, which shines brighter than the sun. As they ride over Bifrost it breaks to pieces, as has before been stated.

Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson, translated by Rasmus Björn Anderson—

Just like Surtr, Stannis came from the South, while his seat – the volcanic isle of Dragonstone – is a place which we can call a realm of fire, just like Muspelheim, the jötunn’s home. In Iceland, there exists a complex of lava caves, which must have reminded the locals of the fire giant’s domain, as they gave it the name of Surtshellir (Surt’s Cave). In the middle ages, outlaws used the cavern as their hideout, but according to long-persistent folk beliefs, in ancient times it was Surtr himself who lived there. I don’t know if George R.R. Martin heard about this place, but at the very least, its name demonstrates how Icelanders imagined the seat of the Lord of Múspell – and Dragonstone is quite similar to such a vision.

File:Surtur mit dem Flammenschwerte.jpg

Friedrich Wilhelm Engelhard, Surtur mit dem Flammenschwerte – Surtr with a flaming sword (Wikimedia Commons)

Is Stannis a giant? Well, the Baratheons are famous because of their height, and in A Game of Thrones Robert is described as a “veritable giant”. Is this enough to determine that his younger brother is another giant, which would strengthen a thesis about his connection with Surtr?

It just so happens that in A Dance with Dragons there is a scene where something curious happens to Stannis’ shadow, when the Wildlings who want to pass to the other side of the Wall are forced to burn weirwood branches:

They came on, clutching their scraps of wood until the time came to feed them to the flames. R’hllor was a jealous deity, ever hungry. So the new god devoured the corpse of the old, and cast gigantic shadows of Stannis and Melisandre upon the Wall, black against the ruddy red reflections on the ice.

A Dance with Dragons, Jon III—

This quote comes, funnily enough, from the very chapter where just after “Mance Rayder” is burned and just before the Wildlings cross to the southern side of the Wall, Lightbringer suddenly shone brighter than ever before, becoming “the sun made steel”. Jon’s third chapter in ADWD is a place where we find an unusual concentration of Norse Mythology references: Tormund (Thor), the Horn of Joramun (Jörmungandr), Ygritte (whose name most likely comes from Yggdrasil, and perhaps contains the word “rite” as well), Val (vala, or völva, a priestess and a seeress) and Sigorn (perhaps Sigurd, and even if this is not the case, the name still has a Norse ring). Perhaps Stannis (his shadow) as a giant is another of those, foreshadowing his future role as Surtr fighting the Freys.

To crown it all, the Wall itself can be seen as a symbol of the Rainbow Bridge. We can do so because of descriptions such as this, coming to us from Jon’s eleventh chapter in A Dance with Dragons:

Outside the day was bright and cloudless. The sun had returned to the sky after a fortnight’s absence, and to the south the Wall rose blue-white and glittering. There was a saying Jon had heard from the older men at Castle Black: the Wall has more moods than Mad King Aerys, they’d say, or sometimes, the Wall has more moods than a woman. On cloudy days it looked to be white rock. On moonless nights it was as black as coal. In snowstorms it seemed carved of snow. But on days like this, there was no mistaking it for anything but ice. On days like this the Wall shimmered bright as a septon’s crystal, every crack and crevasse limned by sunlight, as frozen rainbows danced and died behind translucent ripples. On days like this the Wall was beautiful.

A Dance with Dragons, Jon XI—

Considering that, as we have just established, Stannis symbolizes Surtr, and according to the Prose Edda a host led by the giant will cause Bifrost to collapse, the image we begin to see is sinister. Will Stannis play some role in the Wall’s downfall?

Since Ser Hosteen is Freyr’s counterpart, and Stannis is a Surtr analogue, we should suspect that the Baratheon and his men will succeed in defeating the Frey army in the battle of the crofters’ village. If the scenario DaeL has plotted out in one of his Wild Theories (Szalone Teorie), GRRM will recreate the myth quite thoroughly. If Hosteen leads his men in a charge over the frozen lake, and if the ice breaks under them, we will get out shattering Bifrost. And if Stannis makes use of the trick used by the pirates of the Three Sisters, luring the Freys onto the lake, while the king himself will be safely positioned on an isle, and in the crucial moment of the charge will use Lightbringer to blind his enemies – well, GRRM’s Freyr will die because of Surtr’s sword brighter than the sun, just like his mythical predecessor.

And even if the events of The Winds of Winter won’t unfold exactly in this way, when Stannis Baratheon and Hosteen Frey face one another in battle, the pattern established by Snorri in the Prose Edda will still be fulfilled. The Freys will live to see their own Ragnarök.


Thanks for reading, I hope you’ve enjoyed this piece
Yours, Bluetiger

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Dwa artykuły Bluetigera na FSGK

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Ślady Palców Świtu: Powstanie, Zmierzch i Upadek Wielkiego Cesarstwa Świtu – 24 sierpnia 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/08/slady-palcow-switu-powstanie-zmierzch-i-upadek-wielkiego-cesarstwa-switu/

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Ślady Palców Świtu: Sukcesorzy Wielkiego Cesarstwa po Długiej Nocy – 31 sierpnia 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/08/slady-palcow-switu-sukcesorzy-wielkiego-cesarstwa-po-dlugiej-nocy/

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Trzy artykuły Bluetigera na FSGK

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Tom Bombadil i Zimnoręki 

13 lipca 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/07/tom-bombadil-i-zimnoreki/

TomBombadilFSGK

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“Powinniśmy wracać”, czyli sekretne tożsamości Ser Waymara, Gareda i Willa 

27 lipca 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/07/powinnismy-wracac-czyli-sekretne-tozsamosci-ser-waymara-gareda-i-willa/

PrologGryFSGK.png

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J.R.R. Tolkien. Pisarz stulecia (T.A. Shippey) – artykuł o książce

10 sierpnia 2019 roku

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/08/j-r-r-tolkien-pisarz-stulecia-t-a-shippey/

PisarzStuleciaFSGK.png

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The Name “Valyria”

An Excerpt From Bluetiger’s Aenar’s Aeneid, Part II – “Of Arms and the Man I Sing”, Published in Polish at FSGK on June 29, 2019

Translated and Published Here As:

The Name “Valyria”


From Chapter III: “Targaryens were rightly regarded as being closer to gods than the common run of men”

Aeneas’ wife Creusa was Cassandra’s sister, daughter of King Priam and Queen Hecuba. Yet the hero’s connections to the Trojan royal family go deeper than that, for Aeneas descended from a cadet branch of that dynasty. His father Anchises was the son of Themiste, aunt of King Priam, and Capys, who was the brother of Priam’s grandsire, Assaracus.

Perhaps we see a reference to this genealogy when it is mentioned that the Targaryens were one of the lesser houses of dragon lords. There were no kings in Valyria, thus George R.R. Martin could not present Aenar as a scion of some offshoot branch of the reigning dynasty; so he made the Targaryens into an insignificant house, which was, however, still numbered among the dragon lords.

We may find more curious parallels between Aenar and Aeneas when we look at the later’s mother, the goddess Aphrodite (who in Vergil’s epic bears the name Venus) – this parentage makes our hero a demigod. Are passages such as this referring to this fact?

On Dragonstone, where the Targaryens had long ruled, the common folk had seen their beautiful, foreign rulers almost as gods. —The World of Ice and Fire—

… and:

Upon Dragonstone, (…) Targaryens were rightly regarded as being closer to gods than the common run of men. —The Princess and the Queen—

Aeneas was a demigod, Aenar and his descendants were considered gods… is this a mere coincidence, or a deliberate reference on George R.R. Martin’s part?

The author of A Song of Ice and Fire leaves his readers with another clue as to whom the dragon lords thought themselves to be, and what others thought of them, in the very word he uses for their nation and state: the Valyrians and Valyria. Within the secondary universe, the word valar means people, men, as demonstrated by the saying valar morghulis, valar dohaeris – all men must die, all men must serve. However, the term Valar is well-known outside the fictional setting of Westeros. There is no doubt that George R.R. Martin is referencing the Valar from The Silmarillion and J.R.R. Tolkien’s other literary works:

The Great among these spirits [the Ainur, ‘Angels’; Bluetiger’s note] the Elves name the Valar, Powers of Arda, and Men have often called them gods. —J.R.R. Tolkien, The Silmarillion, Valaquenta—

By using the word Valar; which in High Valyrian signifies people (initially it probably denoted only the Valyrians), and the echoes of which we can hear in words such as Valyrians and Valyria; the author shows his readers that Valyrians believed they were equal to the gods (or at least “The Powers of the World”, “gods”, i.e. the Tolkienic Valar). Perhaps George R.R. Martin went a bit further and made use of the close relation of two Quenya words – Valar and Valaraukar, the later being the name of the fire demons which in the Sindarin tongue are known as the Balrogs. If GRRM had these Tolkienic meanings in mind, this makes his Valyrians concurrently “the Valar” and “the Balrogs”, superhuman and dreadful lords of fire. Both images fit the dragon lords perfectly.

It is worth to mention that in House Targaryen itself appear names such as Valarr and Valerion, which strongly evoke the Valar.

***


 

FSGK PL

Poniżej znajduje się lista tekstów Bluetigera opublikowanych na FSGK PL

    • Obłąkane Spekulacje: Wstęp do Mitycznej Astronomii (część 1) – 8 października 2018 roku
    • Obłąkane Spekulacje: Wstęp do Mitycznej Astronomii (część 2) – 11 października 2018 roku
    • Droga do “Ognia i krwi” (na podstawie tekstu BryndenaBFisha) – 27 grudnia 2018 roku
    • Świt jest oryginalnym Lodem – Część pierwsza (tłumaczenie tekstu LML-a) – 7 stycznia 2019 roku
    • Świt jest oryginalnym Lodem – Część druga (tłumaczenie tekstu LML-a) – 14 stycznia 2019 roku
    • Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu I (Asshai przy Cieniu) – 18 lutego 2019 roku
    • Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu II (Dzieci Imperium – część 1) – 25 lutego 2019 roku
    • Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu III (Dzieci Imperium – część 2, rozdział 1: Królestwa Stepów) – 23 maja 2019 roku
    • Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu IV (Dzieci Imperium – część 2, rozdział 2: Przyszła na Sarnor zagłada) – 24 maja 2019 roku
    • Eneida Aenara, część pierwsza: Wprowadzenie – 22 czerwca 2019 roku
    • Eneida Aenara, część druga: “Broń i męża opiewam” – 29 czerwca 2019 roku
    • Eneida Aenara, część trzecia: Qarth musi zostać zniszczony – 30 czerwca 2019 roku
    • Tom Bombadil i Zimnoręki – 13 lipca 2019 roku
    • “Powinniśmy wracać”, czyli sekretne tożsamości Ser Waymara, Gareda i Willa – 27 lipca 2019 roku
    • J.R.R. Tolkien. Pisarz stulecia (T.A. Shippey) – artykuł o książce – 10 sierpnia 2019
    • Oskarżenie, smutek i cierń – krótki komentarz do zarzutu, iż George R.R. Martin popełnił plagiat – 15 sierpnia 2019
    • Ślady Palców Świtu V: Powstanie, Zmierzch i Upadek Wielkiego Cesarstwa Świtu – 24 sierpnia 2019
    • Ślady Palców Świtu VI: Sukcesorzy Wielkiego Cesarstwa po Długiej Nocy – 31 sierpnia 2019
    • Taniec z Mitami: Przeznaczenie Freya – 7 września 2019 roku
    • Pies Baskerville’ów (Sir Arthur Conan Doyle) – recenzja książki – 14 września 2019 roku
    • Mity skandynawskie (Roger Lancelyn Green) – recenzja książki – 20 września 2019
    • Taniec z Mitami: Krew Kvasira – 28 września 2019 roku
    • Taniec z Mitami: (W)renly – 5 października 2019 roku
    • Taniec z Mitami: Ashara Dayne – 12 października 2019 roku

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Children of Jaehaerys and Alysanne & Children of Garth Greenhand

I’ve noticed some parallels between the 13 children of Jaehaerys and Alysanne from TWOIAF and Fire and Blood and Garth Greenhand’s 13 notable children from TWOIAF. The similarities are the strongest in the following pairs: Baelon & John, Saera & Florys, Alyssa & Rose, Viserra & Gilbert, Maegelle & Maris, Daella & Ellyn. It is much harder to find out who parallels Gael, Aemon, Aegon, Vaegon and Daenerys. Daenerys’ case is especially difficult, most likely because at the time when TWOIAF was complied, this character did not exist – Princess Daenerys replaced Prince Aeryn Targaryen. I believe Aeryn was supposed to parallel either Brandon of the Bloody Blade or Foss the Archer.

Child of Jaehaerys & Alysanne Child of Garth Greenhand Parallels between the two:
Baelon Targaryen (Baelon the Brave) John of the Oak John, “The First Knight”, supposedly introduced chivalry to Westeros and founded House Oakheart of Old Oak. In order to win knighthood, Baelon journeyed to Old Oak and took part in Lord Oakheart’s tourney as a mystery knight known as the Silver Fool.
Saera Targaryen Florys the Fox Florys had three husbands, each ignorant of the existence of the others.

Saera had three lovers, Jonah Mooton, Roy Connington and Braxton Beesbury. Each believed he was “the one”.

Alyssa Targaryen Rose of Red Lake Rose of Red Lake had the power to turn into a crane.

Alyssa loved flying so much she would fly on her dragon Meleys the Red Queen with her infant sons, Viserys and Daemon. Alyssa’s name evokes her mother, Queen Alysanne, whose dragon Silverwing made her lair on an isle in the Red Lake.

Viserra Targaryen Gilbert of the Vines Gilbert invented wine.

Viserra had a fondness for wine and other beverages. She died while racing drunkenly through the streets of King’s Landing.

Maegelle Targaryen (Septa Maegelle) Maris the Maid (Maris the Most Fair) Both lived in Oldtown.
Daella Targaryen Ellyn Ever Sweet Ellyn “sought out the King of the Bees in his vast mountain hive and made a pact with him, to care for his children and his children’s children for all time”.

Daella traveled to the Eyrie and married Lord Rodrik Arryn, becoming a step-mother for his children.

The Eyrie is often described as a honeycomb (“From below it looked like a small white honeycomb” in Catelyn’s AGOT chapter. Tyrion imprisoned in its Sky Cells calls himself “a bee in a stone honeycomb, and someone had torn off his wings”, and in AFFC, Alayne Stone thinks that “The Eyrie shrank above them. The sky cells on the lower levels made the castle look something like a honeycomb from below. A honeycomb made of ice”).

It is also mentioned that, ironically, Daella was afraid of bees and gardens. To scare her, Saera would put bees in her chamberpot.

Vaegon (Archmaester) Rowan Gold Tree or Foss the Archer Vaegon’s mask, rod and ring were made of gold, thus his area of expertise was mathematics. House Fossoway was famous for its financial skills (Florence Fossoway was the unofficial “master of coin” for Jaehaerys).

Alternatively, Vaegon (with his golden attire) parallels Rowan Gold Tree.

Gael (the Winter Child) Owen Oakenshield or

Rowan Gold Tree

Gael drowned in Blackwater Bay after her lover, a wandering minstrel, left her. In TWOIAF, it is mentioned that Rowan’s lover also abandoned her.
Gaemon & Valerion Herndon of the Horn

Harlon the Hunter

Gaemon and Valerion were not twins, but they were the 11th and 12th children of Jaehaerys and Alysanne. It is mentioned that as an infant, Valerion was similar to Gaemon.
Aegon Bors the Breaker Alysanne believed her son would have survived, had she been allowed to bathe in the sacred springs of Maidenpool.

Bors supposedly gained his strength by drinking bull’s blood

Aegon was named after his uncle Aegon the Uncrowned, who was killed by Maegor. The seat of House Bulwer is at Blackcrown.

In ASOIAF, there is a member of the Bulwer family named Alysanne, presumably after Aegon’s mother.

Daenerys (in TWOIAF: Aeryn) Foss the Archer? Brandon? Rowan?
Aemon Brandon of the Bloody Blade or Owen Oakenshield Arguments for Owen:

During the Myrish Bloodbath, Aemon led the royal forces to Tarth, in order to win it back from Myrish pirates. Owen conquered the Shield Islands and drove merlings and selkies into the sea. It is also mentioned that Aemon’s daughter Rhaenys accompanied Jaehaerys when he visited all four Shield Islands.

Arguments for Brandon:

Aemon’s dragon was Caraxes, the Blood Wyrm. Caraxes and its rider Daemon Targaryen fell into God’s Eye lake during the Battle Above God’s Eye in 130 AC. The waters of the like boiled when the dragon’s blood poured into it. Brandon slew so many Children of the Forest at Blue Lake that it became thereafter known as Red Lake.

“Eneida Aenara” – trzy artykuły Bluetigera na FSGK

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Eneida Aenara (część 1): Wprowadzenie – 22 czerwca 2019

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/06/eneida-aenara-czesc-1-wprowadzenie/

***

Eneida Aenara (część 2): “Broń i męża opiewam” – 29 czerwca 2019

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/06/eneida-aenara-czesc-2-bron-i-meza-opiewam/

***

Eneida Aenara (część 3): Qarth musi zostać zniszczony – 30 czerwca 2019

https://fsgk.pl/wordpress/2019/06/eneida-aenara-czesc-3-qarth-musi-zostac-zniszczony/

***

Eneida Aenara: Uzupełnienie

W trzeciej części „Eneidy Aenara” napisałem, że „Daenerys ma bardzo ciekawą symbolikę, ponieważ choć w pierwszym tomie jest przede wszystkim Nissą Nissą i Ametystową Cesarzową, później otrzymuje również atrybuty Azora Ahai – smoki, będące “płonącym mieczem wiszącym nad światem”, jak mówi Xaro Xhoan Daxos. Być może Dany pochodzi i od Ametystowej Cesarzowej, i od Krwawnikowego Cesarza, dzięki czemu jest spadkobierczynią obu cywilizacji założonych przez uciekinierów z zagłady Wielkiego Cesarstwa, Valyrii i Qarthu”, a w innym miejscu: „Daenerys otacza symbolika związana z Ametystową Cesarzową i Nissą Nissą, postaciami związanymi z Qarthem”.

Niniejsze uzupełnienie ma na celu doprecyzowanie tej kwestii – elementów nawiązujących do historii Eneasza z Troi w wątku Daenerys.

Po pierwsze, Daenerys, podobnie jak Eneasz, jest członkinią królewskiego rodu, którego stolica zostaje splądrowana i spalona przez nieprzyjaciół – mam tu na myśli upadek Królewskiej Przystani podczas Rebelii Roberta, którą lojaliści Targaryenów znają jako Wojnę Uzurpatora. Podobnie jak wojna trojańska, w której Grecy pod wodzą Agememnona i Menelaosa usiłowali odbić Helenę, porwaną (przynajmniej w ich mniemaniu) przez jednego z synów króla Priama, księcia Parysa, wspomniany konflikt ma swoje podłoże w domniemanym uprowadzeniu Lyanny Stark, przyrzeczonej młodemu lordowi Końca Burzy Robertowi Baratheonowi, przez Rhaegara Targaryena. Menelaosem jest tu Robert, Agamemnonem przypuszczalnie stanie się Stannis, Lyanna to Helena, zaś Rhaegar to Parys.

Tak samo jak Troja, Królewska Przystań zostaje zdobyta na drodze podstępu i zdrady. Grecy używają fortelu obmyślonego przez Odyseusza, słynnego drewnianego konia, którego nieświadomi zagrożenia mieszkańcy wprowadzają do miasta (pomimo ostrzeżeń Kassandry i kapłana Laokoona). Pewien udział w przekonaniu Trojan do tego czynu ma fałszywy dezerter Sinon, symbol oszustwa i krętactwa, którego Dante umieści później w ósmym kręgu swojego Inferno.

W przypadku Królewskiej Przystani, Lannisterowie zdobywają stolicę sposobem równie zdradzieckim i niehonorowym, choć znacznie mniej wyrafinowanym – przybyła na przedpola miasta armia lorda Tywina oznajmia, że przybywa pomóc w obronie przed nadciągającymi wojskami Roberta (którymi dowodził wówczas Eddard Stark, gdyż Robert nie wrócił jeszcze do pełni sił po odniesieniu w bitwie nad Rubinowym Brodem ran). Role Kassandry i Laokoona odgrywa tutaj Varys, starszy nad szeptaczami; zaś intrygantem Sinonem wielki maester Pycelle, w tajemnicy od wielu lat sprzyjający Lannisterom.

Eneaszem są tutaj ci członkowie rodu Targaryenów, którzy zdołali zbiec przed siłami Starków, Baratheonów, Tullych, Arrynów i Lannisterów: królowa Rhaella, książę Viserys oraz jeszcze nienarodzona księżniczka Daenerys. Ser Willem Darry może tu pełnić rolę Anchizesa, ojca Eneasza, gdyż pełni w stosunku do „Viserysa III” i Dany rolę ojcowską.

Kolejnym podobieństwem jest sztorm o wielkiej sile, który natarł na Smoczą Skałę tej samej nocy, której urodziła się Daenerys (z tego powodu nazywana jest „Zrodzoną z Burzy”). To podczas tej burzy całkowitemu zniszczeniu uległa królewska flota wierna Targaryenom, i zapewne znaczna część floty Velaryonów. Być może wówczas zginął lord Lucerys Velaryon, starszy nad okrętami w Małej Radzie Aerysa II. Nawiasem mówiąc, zupełna anihilacja floty oszczędziła wiele trudów nowemu królowi, Robertowi, gdyż w przeciwnym razie Smocza Skała mogłaby opierać się Baratheonom znacznie dłużej, i mogłaby stać się centrum oporu przeciwko nowej dynastii. Wojna domowa przeciągnęłaby się, być może w lata. A gdyby doszło do połączenia flotylli Velaryonów, okrętów floty królewskiej i potężnej floty Redwyne’ów z Arbor…

W każdym razie, wydaje się, że sztorm rozbijający w drzazgi statki Targaryenów to echo podobnej burzy (wywołanej przez Eola podjudzonego przez Junonę) z pierwszej księgi Eneidy – zesłana przez Króla Wiatrów nawałnica rozpędziła okręty uciekającego z Troi Eneasza po znacznym obszarze Morza Śródziemnego, tak że tylko z wielkim trudem zdołał dotrzeć do Kartaginy i zgromadzić swoich ludzi.

Nawiązanie do Eola i motywu „zdmuchnięcia floty” pojawia się również w rozmowie Daenerys z Zieloną Gracją. Dany: „Może twoi bogowie nam pomogą. Poproś ich, by zesłali wichurę, która przepędzi galery z zatoki” (…) Galazza: „Potrzebujesz króla, który pomoże ci  podźwignąć te brzemiona. (…) Dany: „Powiedz mi, czy ten król nadmie policzki i zdmuchnie galery Xara z zatoki, przeganiając je do Qarthu?” (wichry Eola zagnały okręty Eneasza to Kartaginy).

Wędrówki młodych Viserysa i Daenerys mogą stanowić paralelę długich podróży Enasza, nim dotarł do Italii.

Z kolei przybycie Daenerys do Qarthu to najpewniej nawiązanie do pobytu Eneja w Kartaginie. Rolę królowej Elissy-Dydony gra tutaj Xaro Xhoan Daxos.

Być może słowa rozdziału, w którym Dany przybywa do Qarthu nawiązują do legendy według której po zdobyciu Kartaginy w trzeciej wojnie punickiej Rzymianie wysiali ziemię na której stało miasto solą, tak by już nigdy nic tam nie wyrosło. „Dany took the warlock’s words well salted, but the magnificence of the great city was not to be denied. Three thick walls encircled Qarth, elaborately carved.” Jeśli rzeczywiście mamy tu grę słów (“posolony”), niestety znika ona w polskim przekładzie.

Podobnie jak w przypadku Eneasza, epizod w Qarthcie jest dla Dany zmaganiem z pokusą zapomnienia o przeznaczeniu i niezrealizowania doniosłych planów – Eneasz stanął przed wyborem małżeństwa z Elissą i spokojnego życia w Kartaginie, a trudnym i uciążliwym dziełem położenia podwalin Rzymu.

Propozycja jaką Xaro składa Daenerys – „Widzę cię, jak leżysz szczęśliwa w łożu z naszym dzieckiem u piersi. Pożegluj ze mną wokół Morza Nefrytowego, a ten sen może się jeszcze ziścić! Nie jest za późno. Daj mi syna, moja słodka pieśni radości” – może być paralelą słów królowej Dydo do Eneasza: „Gdybym choć, nim ucieczesz ode mnie zdradziecko, Poczęła z ciebie syna, gdyby Enej-dziecko, Podobny do cię, igrał pod ścian tych osłoną, Nie do szczętu bym czuła się przez cię zdradzoną” (Eneida, IV, 2608-2611).

Podobnie jak Eneasz, Dany wybiera działanie, nie bierność, i opuszcza Qarth-Kartaginę. Podobnie jak Elissa i Kartagińczycy, którzy stali się nieprzejednanymi wrogami Eneasza i Rzymu, Xaro staje się nieprzyjacielem Daenerys – qartheńska flota bierze udział w blokadzie Meereen przez siły sprzymierzone z Yunaki.

Do dziejów Eneja może nawiązywać również konflikt Dany z Synami Harpii – podczas jednej z przygód Trojanie Eneasza lądują na wyspie harpii, z którymi wdają się w potyczkę.

Warto również pamiętać, że matką Eneasza była Wenus-Afrodyta – do której Daenerys jest przyrównana w tej scenie: „W co Wasza Miłość chce się odziać? – zapytała Missandei. W blask gwiazd i morską pianę – pomyślała Dany. I w kawałek jedwabiu, który zostawi lewą pierś odsłoniętą ku zachwytowi Daaria. Aha, i kwiaty we włosach”. To jasne nawiązanie do sceny narodzin Wenus z morskiej piany u wybrzeży Cypru, a także planety (wędrującej gwiazdy) Wenus. (Jest to również jednocześnie nawiązanie do Nissy Nissy, a także pobytu Dany w Qarthcie – Daenerys chce tutaj przyodziać się w suknię na qartheńską modłę. W tym samym rozdziale pojawia się inne odniesienie do Daenerys-Nissy Nissy – królowa żartobliwie stwierdza, że chciałaby dostać od Hizdahra „magiczny miecz”. To najpewniej aluzja do Światłonoścy i śmierci Nissy Nissy).

Z drugiej strony, Daenerys jest wielokrotnie wiązana z Ametystową Cesarzową i królową Elissą: „W cichej komnacie Dany zrzuciła z siebie piękne szaty i przyodziała tunikę z fioletowego jedwabiu”, „Ciasny, srebrzysty kołnierz ocierał jej szyję. Odpięła go i odrzuciła na bok. Wprawiono w niego zaczarowany ametyst”.

Xaro proponuje również Dany małżeństwo słowami: „Niech to będzie twoje królestwo najwspanialsza z królowych. Pozwól, bym stał się twoim królem. Jeśli chcesz, dam ci tron ze złota. Gdy Qarth już ci się znudzi, możemy wyruszyć w podróż wokół Yi Ti, żeby poszukać miasta snów, które opiewają poeci i pić wino mądrości z czaszki zmarłego”.

Dany jest tutaj stawiana w roli królowej Qarthu, a jednocześnie pojawiają się odniesienia do Yi Ti, następcy Wielkiego Cesarstwa, z którego pochodziła Ametystowa Cesarzowa.

Spójrzmy również na barwy Qarthu: „Wszystkie kolory, których brakowało w Vaes Tolorro, trafiły do Qarthu. Z każdej strony otaczały ją budynki o kształtach fantastycznych jak majaczenia w gorączce, pomalowane na najróżniejsze odcienie różu, fioletu i umbry”.

Podsumowując, w historii Dany widzimy nawiązania i do osoby Eneasza, jak i do postaci Elissy-Dydony. Nie jestem całkowicie pewien, co George R.R. Martin chce przez to przekazać. Mogę jedynie spekulować, że ma to związek z faktem, że Daenerys to spadkobierczyni Wielkiego Cesarstwa Świtu, nie tylko Valyrii, i ten właśnie fakt odegra w jej wątku jakąś rolę. Daenerys jest w jednocześnie Nissą Nissą i Azorem Ahai. Możliwe, że podobnie ma się sprawa z Ametystową Cesarzową i Krwawnikowym Cesarzem.

Możliwe również, że elementy zaczerpnięte z dziejów Eneasza w historii Daenerys to po prostu nawiązanie do jej przodka, Aenara Targaryena, wzorowanego na Eneaszu.

***

The History of Middle-earth (HOME)

The History of Middle-earth (HOME)

***


The purpose of this list is to show which texts have been gathered in The History of Middle-earth, edited and compiled by Christopher Tolkien, and to guide prospective readers to specific volumes where the writings they are interested in can be found.

Within the HOME cycle, there are several sub-series: Volumes One and Two comprise The Book of Lost Tales and contain the earliest versions of J.R.R. Tolkien’s myths, Volumes Six, Seven, Eight and Nine are collectively known as The History of The Lord of the Rings and present the development of that grand tale, Volumes Ten and Eleven contain The Later (post-LOTR) Silmarillion.

Volume Three – The Lays of Beleriand – encompasses the tales of the Children of Hurin and Beren and Luthien in alliterative verse; and some abandoned poetry. Volume Four contains the earliest version of what would become The Silmarillion, and also texts on the cosmology and geography of the World these tales are set in. Volume Five explores the different accounts of the Downfall of Numenor. Volume Twelve provides insights into the development of the LOTR appendices.


1. The Book of Lost Tales Part One

– earliest versions of the myths
– the frame story of Eriol’s voyage to Tol Eressëa
– Middle-earth as Europe’s distant past
– tales from The Music of the Ainur to the Coming of Men

2. The Book of Lost Tales Part Two

– early accounts of:

* Beren and Luthien
* Túrin Turambar
* The Fall of Gondolin
* Nauglamír, the Necklace of the Dwarves
* Eärendil and his voyage

– The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales (different versions, in some Tol Eressëa is Britain, in others it is a long-forgotten isle to the west, Seven Invasions of Great Britain/Luthany, the Elves leave when the Rumhoth (Romans) invade, Eriol is the father of Hengest and Horsa under whom the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes settle in England).

3. The Lays of Beleriand

– tales of the Children of Hurn in alliterative verse
– The Lay of Leithian (history of Beren and Luthien)
– abandoned poems: The Flight of the Noldoli, Lay of Eärendel (fragment), The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin

4. The Shaping of Middle-earth

– the earliest version of “Silmarillion”
– The Quenta (second version of what would become Quenta Silmarillion)
– The Horns of Ylmir (the song Tuor wrote for Eärendil his son)
– the first Silmarillion map
– Ambarkanta: The Shape of the World (by the in-universe scholar Rúmil)
– The Earliest Annals of Valinor (from the creation of Arda to the arrival of Fingolfin in Beleriand)
– The Earliest Annals of Beleriand

5. The Lost Road and Other Writings

– The Fall of Númenor and the Lost Road
– The Early History of the Legend
– The Fall of Númenor
– The Lost Road (Amandil & Elendil, Eädwine & Ælfwine, Audoin & Alboin, Edwin and Elwin)
– stories Valinor and Middle-earth from before The Lord of the Rings was written (including The Later Annals of Valinor, The Later Annals of Beleriand, Ainulindalë, The Lhammas, Quenta Silmarillion)

6. The Return of the Shadow (The History of The Lord of the Rings Volume One)

– the evolution of the tale that would become The Lord of the Rings
– additional and abandoned scenes
– notes and outlines providing insights into Tolkien’s writing process
– Volume One explores the development of the story from the beginning till the events in the Mines of Moria)

7. The Treason of Isengard (The History of The Lord of the Rings Volume Two)

– further notes, outlines, and drafts
– original introductions of Galadriel, Treebeard, Éowyn

8. The War of the Ring (The History of The Lord of the Rings Volume Three)

– Part One: The Fall of Saruman (events from The Destruction of Isengard by the Ents to the parley between Gandalf and the traitor Saruman)
– Part Two: The Ring Goes East (events from Frodo and Sam’s meeting with Gollum and their journey to the pass of Cirith Ungol)
– Part Three: Minas Tirith (events of the Siege of Gondor, the Battle of Pelennor the Fields, the Ride of the Rohirrim and the War of the Ring, till Gandalf’s meeting with Sauron’s envoy at the Black Gate)

9. Sauron Defeated (The History of The Lord of the Rings Volume Four)

– Part One: The End of the Third Age; study of the evolution of the story following Sam’s rescue of Frodo at Cirith Ungol, till the End of the Third Age
– original version of the Scouring of the Shire
– unpublished Epilogue
– Part Two: The Notion Club Papers (a story connecting the legends of Numenor to the 20th century Britain)
– Introduction, Foreword and List of Members, The Notion Club Papers Part One, The Notion Club Papers Part Two, earlier versions of these tales
– Part Three: The Drowning of Anadûnê (third version of the Fall of Numenor, the original, the second and the final account of The Drowning of Anadûnê)

10. Morgoth’s Ring (The Later Silmarillion Volume One)

– the post-LOTR versions of The Silmarillion tales
– Ainulindalë
– The Annals of Aman
– The Later Quenta Silmarillion Phase One
– The Later Quenta Silmarillion Phase Two
– Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth; the discussion between Finrod Felegand of the Elves and Andreth, an mortal woman, on the differences between their two kindreds and their final destinies
– Myths Transformed, Tolkien’s never finished attempt to rewrite the entire tales with some radical changes (origins of the Orcs, the cosmology of Eä, the role of the Two Trees of Valinor, different span of the tales – one Valian Year = 144 solar years, the Round World version of the Silmarillinon, Arda never changes shape etc.)

11. The War of the Jewels (The Later Silmarillion Volume Two)

– second part of the partially rewritten Silmarillion drafts from the 50s
– The Grey Annals (including tales of Beren & Luthien and Turin)
– drafts of The Silmarillion chapters (from the coming of Men to the Ruin of Beleriand)
– The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion (Ælfwine and Dírhaval, Maeglin, Of the Ents and the Eagles, The Tale of Years)
– Quendi and Eldar, lingustic essays on the Elvish tongues, the Elves and their tribes, Cuivienyarna – the legend of the awakening of the Elves)

12. The Peoples of Middle-earth

– evolution of the LOTR appendices
– The Prologue, The Appendix on Languages, The Family Trees, The Calendars
– The History of the Akallabêth (texts A, B, B2 and C); in text A the framing story of Ælfwine the sailor’s meeting with the Eldar scholar Pengolodh is retained, different versions of how Míriel’s marriage to Pharazôn came to be (in one she loved him and yields the Sceptre to him, in another she was already bethrothed to Amandil’s brother Elentir, while in the final she is forced to marry her cousin Pharazôn)
– The Tale of Years and the Second Age (development of Appendix B in LOTR)
– The Heirs of Elendil (on which Appendix A is based)
– The Tale of Years and the Third Age (Appendix B)
– Of Dwarves and Men
– The Shibboleth of Fëanor, a linguistic essay
– The Problem of Ros
– Last Writings (three texts from the final year of Tolkien’s life; Glorfindel, The Five Wizards and Círdan)
– Dangweth Pengoloð, Pengolodh’s teaching to Ælfwine concerning the Elder Days, and their discussions
– Of Lembas
– The New Shadow, a LOTR sequel abandoned after 13 pages, the story is set some 220 years into the Fourth Age
– Tal-Elmar, a tale on the Numenorean colonization of Middle-earth as seen from the eyes of a native

13. Index

 

 

Bluetiger’s Bibliography

Bluetiger’s Bibliography:

The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire Series

The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire, Episode I
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire, Episode II
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire: Sansa & Lúthien
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire: Minas Tirith and the Hightower
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire: Argonath and the Titan of Braavos
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire: Sailing to the Uttermost West
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire: A Brief History of Gondor
The Tolkienic Song of Ice and Fire: Appendices
The Advent Calendar 2018 – Introduction
The Advent Calendar 2018 – The Return of the Queen
The Advent Calendar 2018 – Eärendil, Bearer of Light
The Advent Calendar 2018 – The Jade Empire
The Advent Calendar 2018 – Aenar’s Aeneid

Artykuły na FSGK PL (Articles at FSGK PL):

Obłąkane Spekulacje: Wstęp do Mitycznej Astronomii (część 1) – FSGK
Obłąkane Spekulacje: Wstęp do Mitycznej Astronomii (część 2) – FSGK
Droga do “Ognia i krwi” (na podstawie tekstu BryndenaBFisha) – FSGK
Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu I (Asshai przy Cieniu) – FSGK
Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu II (Dzieci Imperium – część 1) – FSGK
Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu III (Dzieci Imperium – część 2, rozdział 1: Królestwa Stepów) – FSGK
Mityczna Astronomia: Ślady Palców Świtu IV (Dzieci Imperium – część 2, rozdział 2: Przyszła na Sarnor zagłada) – FSGK
Eneida Aenara, część pierwsza: Wprowadzenie – FSGK
Eneida Aenara, część druga: “Broń i męża opiewam” – FSGK
Eneida Aenara, część trzecia: Qarth musi zostać zniszczony – FSGK
Tom Bombadil i Zimnoręki – FSGK
“Powinniśmy wracać”, czyli sekretne tożsamości Ser Waymara, Gareda i Willa – FSGK
J.R.R. Tolkien. Pisarz stulecia (T.A. Shippey) – artykuł o książce
Oskarżenie, smutek i cierń – krótki komentarz do zarzutu, iż George R.R. Martin popełnił plagiat
Ślady Palców Świtu V: Powstanie, Zmierzch i Upadek Wielkiego Cesarstwa Świtu 
Ślady Palców Świtu VI: Sukcesorzy Wielkiego Cesarstwa po Długiej Nocy
Taniec z Mitami: Przeznaczenie Freya
Pies Baskerville’ów (Sir Arthur Conan Doyle) – recenzja książki
Mity skandynawskie (Roger Lancelyn Green) – recenzja książki
Taniec z Mitami: Krew Kvasira
Taniec z Mitami: (W)renly
Taniec z Mitami: Ashara Dayne

The Advent Calendar 2017 Series in English

The Advent Calendar 2017 – Introduction
3rd of December 2017: Tom Bombadil and Coldhands
4th of December 2017: House Harclay and Triple Moon
5th of December 2017: Daeron
6th of December 2017: Saint Nicholas Day
7th of December 2017: Sansa and Luthien
8th of December 2017: The Burning of the Ships: Feanor, Brandon, Nymeria
9th of December 2017: Oak King, Holly King and Renly
10th of December 2017: The Long Night upon Valinor
11th of December 2017: Arien and Tilion
12th of December 2017: Numenor
13th of December 2017: Minas Ithil, Minas Anor
14th of December 2017: Disaster of the Gladden Fields
15th of December 2017: The Wild Men of the Woods
16th of December 2017: Thoren Smallwood
17th of December 2017: The Valar
18th of December 2017: The Maiar
19th of December 2017: The Elves (Eldar, Quendi)
20th of December 2017: The metals of Middle-Earth
21st of December 2017: Yule
22nd of December 2017: Bran
23rd of December 2017: Baldur
24th of December 2017 (Christmas Eve): Eärendil, The Evenstar and The Morningstar

The Advent Calendar 2017 Series in Polish

Kalendarz adwentowy – Wstęp
3 grudnia 2017: Tom Bombadil i Zimnoręki
4 grudnia 2017: Ród Harclayów i Potrójny Księżyc
5 grudnia 2017: Daeron
6 grudnia 2017: Dzień Świętego Mikołaja
7 grudnia 2017: Sansa i Luthien
8 grudnia 2017: Spalenie okrętów: Feanor, Brandon, Nymeria
9 grudnia 2017: Król Dębu, Król Ostrokrzewu, Renly
10 grudnia 2017: Długa Noc nad Valinorem
11 grudnia 2017: Ariena i Tilion
12 grudnia 2017: Numenor
13 grudnia 2017: Minas Ithil, Minas Anor
14 grudnia 2017: Klęska na Polach Gladden
15 grudnia 2017: Dzicy Ludzie z Lasu
16 grudnia 2017: Thoren Smallwood
17 grudnia 2017: Valarowie
18 grudnia 2017: Majarowie
19 grudnia 2017: Elfowie (Eldarowie, Quendi)
20 grudnia 2017: Metale Śródziemia
21 grudnia 2017: Yule
22 grudnia 2017: Bran
23 grudnia 2017: Baldur
24 grudnia 2017 (Wigilia Bożego Narodzenia): Eärendil, Gwiazda Wieczorna i Poranna

Tłumaczenia (Translations):

George R.R. Martin pisze współczesną mitologię
Astronomia wyjaśnia legendy lodu i ognia
Krwawnikowy Cesarz Azor Ahai
Fale Nocy i Księżycowej Krwi
Góra kontra Żmija i Młot Wód
Tyrion Targaryen (oprócz ostatniego rozdziału)
“Lucifer” Znaczy Światłonośca
Szary Król i Morski Smok
Ostatni Bohater i Król Ziarna
Król Zimy, Władca Śmierci
Straż Długiej Nocy
Świt jest oryginalnym Lodem – Część pierwsza
Świt jest oryginalnym Lodem – Część druga
LML TV, odcinek I: Długa Noc
O autorze ‘Mitycznej Astronomii Ognia i Lodu’ – LMLu
WorldCon 2018, San Jose, Kalifornia. Pytania i odpowiedzi (Q&A) z Georgem R.R. Martinem (relacja LMLa)
Mityczna Astronomia numerem 1 wśród analiz Pieśni Lodu i Ognia – wg. The Fandomentals (artykuł Gretchen)
The Name “Valyria”

Mityczna Astronomia w skrócie (streszczenia):

Krew Innego: Preludium Chłodu
Krew Innego: A Baelful Bard and a Promised Prince